Olga Tretiakova


Introduction: In recent years, houses out of vertical squared timber have become widespread. Vertical bars make it
possible to use the effective wood behavior in compression and ensure maximum strength of the material along the
fibers. Vertical bars are subject to compression with bending, which can result in loss of strength and buckling in building structures. In the available research papers and technical literature, the issue of the stress-strain state of such walls has not been analyzed. The purpose of this study was to formulate a calculation method for walls out of vertical squared timber, based on the available traditional approaches to wooden structures. We propose a calculation method for walls out of vertical squared timber as a set of elements resisting compression with bending, including a check for limiting slenderness. Results: Permissible heights of walls for buildings with bays of 10 and 12 m were obtained. The results can be used in the design of low-rise residential and public buildings, mansard superstructures of multi-story buildings.


Vertical squared timber, stress-strain state, compression, bending.

Full Text:



Bedon, C. and Fragiacomo, M. (2019). Numerical analysis of timber-to-timber joints and composite beams with inclined self-tapping screws. Composite Structures, Vol. 207, pp. 13–28. DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.09.008.

Bucklin, O., Menges, A., Krieg, O., Drexler, H., Rohr, A. and Amtsberg, F. (2021). Mono-material wood wall : digital fabrication of performative wood envelopes. Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 1–16. DOI: 10.7480/jfde.2021.1.5398.

Cabral, M. R. and Blanchet, P. (2021). A state of the art of the overall energy efficiency of wood buildings—an overview and future possibilities. Materials, Vol. 14, Issue 8, 1848. DOI: 10.3390/ma14081848.

Chaggaris, R., Pei, S., Kingsley, G. and Kinder, E. (2021). Cost-effectiveness of mass timber beam–column gravity systems. Journal of Architectural Engineering, Vol. 27, Issue 3, 04021028. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)AE.1943-5568.0000494.

Cohen, D. H. and Gaston, C. (2003). The use of engineered wood products in traditional Japanese wood house construction. Wood and Fiber Science, Vol. 35, No. 1, pp. 102–109.

Cokcan, B., Braumann, J., Winter,W. and Trautz, M. (2016). Robotic production of individualised wood joints: Fabricating an info point structure for the WCTE. In: Chien, S., Choo, S., Schnabel, M. A., Nakapan, W., Kim, M. J. and Roudavski, S. (eds.), Living Systems and Micro-Utopias: Towards Continuous Designing, Proceedings of the 21st International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia CAADRIA 2016. Hong Kong: Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia (CAADRIA), pp. 559–568.

Colella, M. (2020). The dome as minimal housing unit: “Ghibli” and “D-Home” prototypes. In: Viana, V., Murtinho, V. and Xavier, J. P. (eds.), Thinking, Drawing, Modelling. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics and Statistics, Vol. 326, pp. 29–40. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-46804-0_3.

Dias, A. M. A., Dias, A. M. P. G., Silvestre, J. D. and de Brito, J. (2020). Comparison of the environmental and structural performance of solid and glued laminated timber products based on EPDs. Structures, Vol. 26, pp. 128–138. DOI: 10.1016/j.istruc.2020.04.015.

El Houjeyri, I., Thi, V. D., Oudjene, M., Ottenhaus, L.-M., Khelifa, M. and Rogaume, Y. (2021). Coupled nonlinear-damage finite element analysis and design of novel engineered wood products made of oak hardwood. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, Vol. 79, No. 1, pp. 29–47. DOI: 10.1007/s00107-020-01617-7.

Feio, A. O., Lourenço, P. B. and Machado, J. S. (2014). Testing and modeling of a traditional timber mortise and tenon joint. Materials and Structures, Vol. 47, Issue 1–2, pp. 213–225. DOI: 10.1617/s11527-013-0056-y.

Gamerro, J., Bocquet, J. F. and Weinand, Y. (2020). Experimental investigations on the load-carrying capacity of digitally produced wood-wood connections. Engineering Structures, Vol. 213, 110576. DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2020.110576.

Ganaus, G. (2009). Wooden wall of ceiling element (options). Patent No. RU866115U1.

Ganaus, G., Stepanishchev, A. V., Lazarev, D. B. and Yelchugin, A. V. (2018). Wooden wall design. Patent No. RU2663854C1.

He, J.-X., Yu, P., Wang, J., Yang, Q.-S., Han, M. and Xie, L.-L. (2021). Theoretical model of bending moment for the penetrated mortise-tenon joint involving gaps in traditional timber structure. Journal of Building Engineering, Vol. 42, 103102. DOI: 10.1016/j.jobe.2021.103102.

Höckner, V. (2019). Hygrothermische Gebäudesimulation eines Massivholz-Systems im Vergleich zum Monats-Bilanzverfahren. Diploma thesis. Vienna: Technical University Wien, 151 p.

Inayama, M., Aoyama, S. and Murakami, M. (2011). In-plane shear test and analysis of mechanical behavior of inserted wooden siding wall. Journal of Structural and Construction Engineering, Vol. 76, No. 659, pp. 97–104. DOI: 10.3130/aijs.76.97.

Iraola, B., Cabrero, J. M., Basterrechea-Arévalo, M., Gracia, J. (2021). A geometrically defined stiffness contact for finite element models of wood joints. Engineering Structures, Vol. 235, 112062. DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2021.112062.

Janakieska, M. M., Ayrilmis, N. and Kuzman, M. K. (2021). The engineered wood products application in vernacular and contemporary architecture in Macedonia. 14th International Scientific Conference of International Association for Economics and Management in Wood Processing and Furniture Manufacturing (WoodEMA) on The Response of the Forest-Based Sector to Changes in the Global Economy, Koper, Slovenya, June 16–18, 2021, pp. 387–392.

Krasovsky, M. V. (2002) Encyclopedia of Russian architecture. Wooden architecture. Saint Petersburg: Satis, 382 p.

Leung, P. Y. V., Apolinarska, A. A., Tanadini, D., Gramazio, F. and Kohler, M. (2021). Automatic assembly of jointed timber structure using distributed robotic clamps. In: Globa, A., van Ameijde, J., Fingrut, A., Kim, N. and Lo, T. T. S. (eds.), Projections – Proceedings of the 26th International Conference of the Association for Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, CAADRIA 2021, Vol. 1. Hong Kong: Association for Computer-Aided Architectural esign Research in Asia (CAADRIA), pp. 583–592. DOI: 10.3929/ethz-b-000481928.

Mayo, J. (2015). Solid wood: case studies in mass timber architecture, technology and design. London: Routledge, 358 p. DOI: 10.4324/9781315742892.

Meloni, D., Giaccu, G. F., Concu, G. and Valdés, M. (2018). FEM models for elastic parameters identifications of cross laminated marittime pine panels. WCTE 2018, World Conference on Timber Engineering, Seoul, Korea, August 20–23, 2018.

Miyata, Y. (2020). Lateral loading test of dowel laminated timber and verification of mechanical properties. AIJ Journal of Technology and Design, Vol. 26, Issue 64, pp. 940–945. DOI: 10.3130/aijt.26.940.

Miyata, Y., Ochiai, Y., Aoki, K. and Inayama, M. (2018). Development of non-glued massive holz shear wall and proposal of calculation method of allowable strength. AIJ Journal of Technology and Design, Vol. 24, Issue 56, pp. 129–134. DOI: 10.3130/aijt.24.129.

Müller, T., Flemming, D., Janowsky, I., Di Bari, R., Harder, N. and Leistner, P. (2021). Bauphysikalische und ökologische Potenziale von Gebäuden in Holzbauweise. Bauphysik, Vol. 43, Issue 3, pp. 174–185. DOI: 10.1002/bapi.202100011.

Namari, S., Drosky, L., Pudlitz, B., Haller, P., Sotayo, A., Bradley, D., Mehra, S., O’Ceallaigh, C., Harte, A. M., El-Houjeyri, I., Oudjene, M. and Guan, Z. (2021). Mechanical properties of compressed wood. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 301, 124269. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2021.124269.

Pavlenin, M. V and Shutova, O. A. (2020). Economic feasibility of building houses from a vertical timber. Modern Technologies in Construction. Theory and Practice, Vol. 2, pp. 132–136.

Piao, C. and Shupe, T. F. (2016). Mechanical properties of finger-jointed wood from composite utility poles made of small diameter timber Drvna Industrija, Vol. 67, Issue 1, pp. 73–78. DOI: 10.5552/drind.2016.1436.

Pinkowski, G., Szymański, W., Krauss, A. and Stefanowski, S. (2019). Effect of sharpness angle and feeding speed on the surface roughness during milling of various wood species. BioResources, Vol. 13, Issue 3, pp. 6952–6962. DOI: 10.15376/biores.13.3.6952-6962.

Resch, H. (1999). Massivwände aus behauenem rundholz. Holzforschung und Holzverwertung, Vol. 51, Issue 5, pp. 82–84.

Sandhaas, C. (2016). Buildings made of dowel-laminated timber: joint and shear wall properties. In: Eberhardsteiner, J., Winter, W., Fadai, A. and Pöll, M. (eds.), WCTE 2016 e-book: containing all full papers submitted to the World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2016), August 22–25, 2016, Vienna, Austria. Vienna: TU Verlag Wien, pp. 4589–4596.

Schiro, G., Giongo, I., Sebastian, W., Riccadonna, D. and Piazza, M. (2018). Testing of timber-to-timber screw-connections in hybrid configurations. Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 171, pp. 170–186. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2018.03.078.

Skullestad, J. L., Bohne, R. A. and Lohne, J. (2016). High-rise timber buildings as a climate change mitigation measure – a comparative LCA of structural system alternatives. Energy Procedia, Vol. 96, pp. 112–123. DOI: 10.1016/j.egypro.2016.09.112.

Starikov, A., Gribanov, A., Lapshina, M. and Mohammed, H. (2020). Adaptive milling of solid wood furniture workpieces: analysis of the extended approach capabilities. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 595, 012026. DOI: 10.1088/1755-1315/595/1/012026.

Thiel, A. and Schickhofer, G. (2010). CLTdesigner – a software tool for designing cross laminated timber elements: 1D-plate-design. In: Ceccotti, A. (ed.), 11th World Conference on Timber Engineering 2010, WCTE 2010, June 20–24, 2010, Trentino, Italy. Red Hook, NY: Curran Associates, Inc., pp. 1742–1747.

Tsai, M.-T. and Wonodihardjo, A. S. (2018). Achieving sustainability of traditional wooden houses in Indonesia by utilization of cost-efficient waste-wood composite. Sustainability, Vol. 10, Issue 6, 1718. DOI: 10.3390/su10061718.

Yu, P., Yang, Q. and Law, S.-S. (2021). Lateral behavior of heritage timber frames with loose nonlinear mortise-tenon connections. Structures, Vol. 33, pp. 581–592. DOI: 10.1016/j.istruc.2021.04.061.

Zmijewki, T. and Wojtowicz-Jankowska, D. (2017). Timber - Material of the future - Examples of small wooden architectural structures. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol. 245, Issue 8, 082019. DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/245/8/082019.

Župčić, I., Mihulja, G., Bogner, A., Grbac, I. and Hrovat, B. (2021). Zavarivanje masivnog drva. Drvna Industrija, Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 113–119.



  • There are currently no refbacks.


ISSN: 2500-0055